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Sep 06, 2023
FinTech and the Changing Financial Landscape (Keynote Address by Shri Shaktikanta Das, Governor, RBI - September 6, 2023 - at the Global Fintech Festival, Mumbai)

I am delighted to be here with all of you to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee Year of the Delhi School of Economics (DSE). The Delhi School has made a distinct mark as an institution of excellence and very high reputation, both in India and abroad. The list of eminent economists and distinguished alumni associated with the DSE is long and impressive. The School has inspired generations of students to excel in diverse streams such as academia, research, government and corporate sectors. In the Reserve Bank of India, we have also benefitted immensely from the DSE, with a continuous stream of students joining the RBI. It is a matter of pride for me to be part of this momentous year in the history of the institute which has contributed immensely to the policy discourse in India.

2. Today, I have chosen to speak on “Art of Monetary Policy Making: The Indian Context”. As you would be aware, India formally adopted the flexible inflation targeting (FIT) framework in 2016, in broad alignment with global trends. The underlying principle of this framework is that a clearly articulated, legislatively mandated numerical inflation target is the best foundation for overall macroeconomic stability. Low and stable inflation helps households and businesses in planning for long-term savings and investments which ultimately drive innovation, productivity and sustainable growth. On the contrary, high and volatile inflation corrodes the economy by denting productivity and the long-term growth potential. Inflation also imposes disproportionate burden on the poor.

3. I have structured my talk in the following sequence: (i) evolution of monetary policy in India, culminating in the adoption of flexible inflation targeting (FIT) framework; (ii) key elements of this framework, including the forecasting process; (iii) conduct of monetary policy under the FIT regime; and (iv) monetary policy challenges at the current juncture.

Evolution of Monetary Policy Since Independence

4. During the 1950s and 1960s, as the country embarked upon planned economic development, monetary policy assumed a developmental role of meeting the credit needs of the economy as identified under the five-year plans. Bank nationalisation in 1969 ushered in the era of social banking and led to the credit planning phase (1969-85). This period witnessed widespread use of non-market instruments such as directed credit, administered interest rates and moral suasion.

5. Monetary policy during the 1970s and 1980s was constrained by fiscal dominance, automatic monetisation of budget deficits and excessive growth of monetary aggregates. The large scale deficit financing and the resultant high monetary and credit expansion led to inflationary pressures which were further exacerbated by a series of shocks, namely, the Indo-Pak war of 1971, the drought of 1973, the collapse of the Bretton Woods system in 1973, and global oil price shocks of 1973 and 1979. These events precipitated the adoption of “monetary targeting with feedback” as a formal monetary policy framework in 1985.

Shri Shaktikanta Das, Governor, Reserve Bank of India

I am delighted to be here with all of you to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee Year of the Delhi School of Economics (DSE). The Delhi School has made a distinct mark as an institution of excellence and very high reputation, both in India and abroad. The list of eminent economists and distinguished alumni associated with the DSE is long and impressive. The School has inspired generations of students to excel in diverse streams such as academia, research, government and corporate sectors. In the Reserve Bank of India, we have also benefitted immensely from the DSE, with a continuous stream of students joining the RBI. It is a matter of pride for me to be part of this momentous year in the history of the institute which has contributed immensely to the policy discourse in India.

2. Today, I have chosen to speak on “Art of Monetary Policy Making: The Indian Context”. As you would be aware, India formally adopted the flexible inflation targeting (FIT) framework in 2016, in broad alignment with global trends. The underlying principle of this framework is that a clearly articulated, legislatively mandated numerical inflation target is the best foundation for overall macroeconomic stability. Low and stable inflation helps households and businesses in planning for long-term savings and investments which ultimately drive innovation, productivity and sustainable growth. On the contrary, high and volatile inflation corrodes the economy by denting productivity and the long-term growth potential. Inflation also imposes disproportionate burden on the poor.

3. I have structured my talk in the following sequence: (i) evolution of monetary policy in India, culminating in the adoption of flexible inflation targeting (FIT) framework; (ii) key elements of this framework, including the forecasting process; (iii) conduct of monetary policy under the FIT regime; and (iv) monetary policy challenges at the current juncture.

Evolution of Monetary Policy Since Independence

4. During the 1950s and 1960s, as the country embarked upon planned economic development, monetary policy assumed a developmental role of meeting the credit needs of the economy as identified under the five-year plans. Bank nationalisation in 1969 ushered in the era of social banking and led to the credit planning phase (1969-85). This period witnessed widespread use of non-market instruments such as directed credit, administered interest rates and moral suasion.

5. Monetary policy during the 1970s and 1980s was constrained by fiscal dominance, automatic monetisation of budget deficits and excessive growth of monetary aggregates. The large scale deficit financing and the resultant high monetary and credit expansion led to inflationary pressures which were further exacerbated by a series of shocks, namely, the Indo-Pak war of 1971, the drought of 1973, the collapse of the Bretton Woods system in 1973, and global oil price shocks of 1973 and 1979. These events precipitated the adoption of “monetary targeting with feedback” as a formal monetary policy framework in 1985.

Sep 05, 2023
FinTech Innovation and approach to regulation (Keynote address delivered by Deputy Governor T Rabi Sankar, Reserve Bank of India - September 5, 2023 - at the Global Fintech Festival in Mumbai)

I am delighted to be here with all of you to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee Year of the Delhi School of Economics (DSE). The Delhi School has made a distinct mark as an institution of excellence and very high reputation, both in India and abroad. The list of eminent economists and distinguished alumni associated with the DSE is long and impressive. The School has inspired generations of students to excel in diverse streams such as academia, research, government and corporate sectors. In the Reserve Bank of India, we have also benefitted immensely from the DSE, with a continuous stream of students joining the RBI. It is a matter of pride for me to be part of this momentous year in the history of the institute which has contributed immensely to the policy discourse in India.

2. Today, I have chosen to speak on “Art of Monetary Policy Making: The Indian Context”. As you would be aware, India formally adopted the flexible inflation targeting (FIT) framework in 2016, in broad alignment with global trends. The underlying principle of this framework is that a clearly articulated, legislatively mandated numerical inflation target is the best foundation for overall macroeconomic stability. Low and stable inflation helps households and businesses in planning for long-term savings and investments which ultimately drive innovation, productivity and sustainable growth. On the contrary, high and volatile inflation corrodes the economy by denting productivity and the long-term growth potential. Inflation also imposes disproportionate burden on the poor.

3. I have structured my talk in the following sequence: (i) evolution of monetary policy in India, culminating in the adoption of flexible inflation targeting (FIT) framework; (ii) key elements of this framework, including the forecasting process; (iii) conduct of monetary policy under the FIT regime; and (iv) monetary policy challenges at the current juncture.

Evolution of Monetary Policy Since Independence

4. During the 1950s and 1960s, as the country embarked upon planned economic development, monetary policy assumed a developmental role of meeting the credit needs of the economy as identified under the five-year plans. Bank nationalisation in 1969 ushered in the era of social banking and led to the credit planning phase (1969-85). This period witnessed widespread use of non-market instruments such as directed credit, administered interest rates and moral suasion.

5. Monetary policy during the 1970s and 1980s was constrained by fiscal dominance, automatic monetisation of budget deficits and excessive growth of monetary aggregates. The large scale deficit financing and the resultant high monetary and credit expansion led to inflationary pressures which were further exacerbated by a series of shocks, namely, the Indo-Pak war of 1971, the drought of 1973, the collapse of the Bretton Woods system in 1973, and global oil price shocks of 1973 and 1979. These events precipitated the adoption of “monetary targeting with feedback” as a formal monetary policy framework in 1985.

Shri T. Rabi Sankar, Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India

I am delighted to be here with all of you to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee Year of the Delhi School of Economics (DSE). The Delhi School has made a distinct mark as an institution of excellence and very high reputation, both in India and abroad. The list of eminent economists and distinguished alumni associated with the DSE is long and impressive. The School has inspired generations of students to excel in diverse streams such as academia, research, government and corporate sectors. In the Reserve Bank of India, we have also benefitted immensely from the DSE, with a continuous stream of students joining the RBI. It is a matter of pride for me to be part of this momentous year in the history of the institute which has contributed immensely to the policy discourse in India.

2. Today, I have chosen to speak on “Art of Monetary Policy Making: The Indian Context”. As you would be aware, India formally adopted the flexible inflation targeting (FIT) framework in 2016, in broad alignment with global trends. The underlying principle of this framework is that a clearly articulated, legislatively mandated numerical inflation target is the best foundation for overall macroeconomic stability. Low and stable inflation helps households and businesses in planning for long-term savings and investments which ultimately drive innovation, productivity and sustainable growth. On the contrary, high and volatile inflation corrodes the economy by denting productivity and the long-term growth potential. Inflation also imposes disproportionate burden on the poor.

3. I have structured my talk in the following sequence: (i) evolution of monetary policy in India, culminating in the adoption of flexible inflation targeting (FIT) framework; (ii) key elements of this framework, including the forecasting process; (iii) conduct of monetary policy under the FIT regime; and (iv) monetary policy challenges at the current juncture.

Evolution of Monetary Policy Since Independence

4. During the 1950s and 1960s, as the country embarked upon planned economic development, monetary policy assumed a developmental role of meeting the credit needs of the economy as identified under the five-year plans. Bank nationalisation in 1969 ushered in the era of social banking and led to the credit planning phase (1969-85). This period witnessed widespread use of non-market instruments such as directed credit, administered interest rates and moral suasion.

5. Monetary policy during the 1970s and 1980s was constrained by fiscal dominance, automatic monetisation of budget deficits and excessive growth of monetary aggregates. The large scale deficit financing and the resultant high monetary and credit expansion led to inflationary pressures which were further exacerbated by a series of shocks, namely, the Indo-Pak war of 1971, the drought of 1973, the collapse of the Bretton Woods system in 1973, and global oil price shocks of 1973 and 1979. These events precipitated the adoption of “monetary targeting with feedback” as a formal monetary policy framework in 1985.

Sep 04, 2023
Keynote Address by Shri Shaktikanta Das, Governor, RBI at the G20 TechSprint Finale organised by Reserve Bank of India and Bank for International Settlements (BIS). Mumbai, September 4, 2023

It gives me immense pleasure to be present here on the occasion of the G20 TechSprint 2023 Grand Finale - an event that represents the spirit of innovation, collaboration and transformation. TechSprint is yet another initiative which reinforces our commitment to harness technology and foster innovations that can transform the financial landscape of the entire world. As we gather here, in the presence of remarkable minds and visionary leaders, we stand on the vortex of possibility and progress, where innovation is not just a concept, but a catalyst for change. 2. The G20 TechSprint is a global long-form hackathon series that the BIS Innovation Hub co-hosts annually with the G20 Presidency. The objective of these hackathons is to identify new technologies which can address the challenges and priorities of central banks. It provides a unique opportunity for public-private partnerships as well as regulator-innovator partnerships. These partnerships have great potential to contribute positively towards improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the financial services ecosystem. 3. TechSprint 2023 resonates profoundly with India's commitment to innovation. With its robust start-up ecosystem, vibrant talent pool, and unwavering commitment to digital transformation, India is now focusing on the way technology can be harnessed to bridge gaps, empower individuals and promote financial inclusion. The past few years have seen a rapid expansion of digital technologies in India having transformative impact on our financial system. Today, more and more people have access to financial services, regardless of their location or social status, owing to the robust digital public infrastructure like Aadhar, affordable internet and mobile phone services. Innovations are powering the spread of mobile banking, digital payments, and other customised digital product offerings. 4. A landmark example of our commitment to innovation is the Unified Payments Interface (UPI), which has been a game-changer for India's digital payments ecosystem. It has helped to drive financial inclusion by bringing millions of unbanked individuals into the formal financial system. With over 10 billion transactions a month, the UPI has become the backbone of digital payments in India and has helped to catalyse a wave of innovations in the fintech sector. Today, there are more than 70 mobile apps and more than 50 million merchants, who accept UPI payments.

Shri Shaktikanta Das, Governor, Reserve Bank of India

It gives me immense pleasure to be present here on the occasion of the G20 TechSprint 2023 Grand Finale - an event that represents the spirit of innovation, collaboration and transformation. TechSprint is yet another initiative which reinforces our commitment to harness technology and foster innovations that can transform the financial landscape of the entire world. As we gather here, in the presence of remarkable minds and visionary leaders, we stand on the vortex of possibility and progress, where innovation is not just a concept, but a catalyst for change. 2. The G20 TechSprint is a global long-form hackathon series that the BIS Innovation Hub co-hosts annually with the G20 Presidency. The objective of these hackathons is to identify new technologies which can address the challenges and priorities of central banks. It provides a unique opportunity for public-private partnerships as well as regulator-innovator partnerships. These partnerships have great potential to contribute positively towards improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the financial services ecosystem. 3. TechSprint 2023 resonates profoundly with India's commitment to innovation. With its robust start-up ecosystem, vibrant talent pool, and unwavering commitment to digital transformation, India is now focusing on the way technology can be harnessed to bridge gaps, empower individuals and promote financial inclusion. The past few years have seen a rapid expansion of digital technologies in India having transformative impact on our financial system. Today, more and more people have access to financial services, regardless of their location or social status, owing to the robust digital public infrastructure like Aadhar, affordable internet and mobile phone services. Innovations are powering the spread of mobile banking, digital payments, and other customised digital product offerings. 4. A landmark example of our commitment to innovation is the Unified Payments Interface (UPI), which has been a game-changer for India's digital payments ecosystem. It has helped to drive financial inclusion by bringing millions of unbanked individuals into the formal financial system. With over 10 billion transactions a month, the UPI has become the backbone of digital payments in India and has helped to catalyse a wave of innovations in the fintech sector. Today, there are more than 70 mobile apps and more than 50 million merchants, who accept UPI payments.

Jul 11, 2023
RBI & Fintech: The Road Ahead

Good Morning to all I am delighted to be present here at the India Start-up Conclave. All of you represent the best of the Indian entrepreneurial spirit and it is my privilege to be addressing this gathering. India is one of the fastest growing large economies today, our population is young and adequately skilled, the policy environment is supportive of private enterprise, our capital markets are capable of funding good business ideas, the India stack-the envy of the world- all these factors have allowed many start-ups to bloom thereby creating a robust Indian start-up ecosystem. FinTech entities comprise a large part of this start-up ecosystem.

Shri T. Rabi Sankar, Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India

Good Morning to all I am delighted to be present here at the India Start-up Conclave. All of you represent the best of the Indian entrepreneurial spirit and it is my privilege to be addressing this gathering. India is one of the fastest growing large economies today, our population is young and adequately skilled, the policy environment is supportive of private enterprise, our capital markets are capable of funding good business ideas, the India stack-the envy of the world- all these factors have allowed many start-ups to bloom thereby creating a robust Indian start-up ecosystem. FinTech entities comprise a large part of this start-up ecosystem.

Mar 10, 2023
The FinTech Revolution in India- Innovation, Inclusion and Regulation

Shri Injeti Srinivas (Chairperson, IFSCA), Shri B. P. Kanungo (Director, CAFRAL), faculty members of IIM Ahmedabad and CAFRAL, and distinguished participants of this conference, a warm greeting to you all! 1. I am delighted to be present here at this International Research Conference on FinTech. The theme on ‘Innovation, Inclusion, and Regulation’ in the context of the FinTech Revolution in India is indeed very topical and relevant to the times we live in. 2. New tech

Shri M. K. Jain, Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India

Shri Injeti Srinivas (Chairperson, IFSCA), Shri B. P. Kanungo (Director, CAFRAL), faculty members of IIM Ahmedabad and CAFRAL, and distinguished participants of this conference, a warm greeting to you all! 1. I am delighted to be present here at this International Research Conference on FinTech. The theme on ‘Innovation, Inclusion, and Regulation’ in the context of the FinTech Revolution in India is indeed very topical and relevant to the times we live in. 2. New tech

Dec 27, 2022
Fintech & Regulation
1. Year-ends are usually a time for introspection and 2022 clearly offers a lot of food for thought. On the bright side, humanity seems to be finally putting the horrors of Covid behind it. The rest of the story is not so bright. The specter of war and geopolitical tension has reared its head again. We were told in the late 1990s that business cycles were dead and inflation has been conquered. After the financial crisis in advanced economies, the focus shifted to defl
Shri T. Rabi Sankar, Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India
1. Year-ends are usually a time for introspection and 2022 clearly offers a lot of food for thought. On the bright side, humanity seems to be finally putting the horrors of Covid behind it. The rest of the story is not so bright. The specter of war and geopolitical tension has reared its head again. We were told in the late 1990s that business cycles were dead and inflation has been conquered. After the financial crisis in advanced economies, the focus shifted to defl
Oct 16, 2022
Virtual Launch of DBUs
Hon’ble Prime Minister, Hon’ble Finance Minister, Hon’ble Ministers from the Central Government, Hon’ble Chief Ministers and Ministers from the State Governments, Hon’ble MPs and MLAs, Officers from Central and State Governments, Deputy Governors of RBI, MD&CEOs of Banks, Dignitaries and participants from across the country, Ladies and Gentlemen. 2. It is my proud privilege to welcome the Hon’ble Prime Minister to this event. His presence here is a great source of
Shri Shaktikanta Das, Governor, Reserve Bank of India
Hon’ble Prime Minister, Hon’ble Finance Minister, Hon’ble Ministers from the Central Government, Hon’ble Chief Ministers and Ministers from the State Governments, Hon’ble MPs and MLAs, Officers from Central and State Governments, Deputy Governors of RBI, MD&CEOs of Banks, Dignitaries and participants from across the country, Ladies and Gentlemen. 2. It is my proud privilege to welcome the Hon’ble Prime Minister to this event. His presence here is a great source of
Sep 20, 2022
Fintech as a Force Multiplier
I am delighted to be here today in the third edition of the Global Fintech Festival (GFF). I would like to congratulate the organisers – the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI), the Fintech Convergence Council (FCC) and the Payment Council of India (PCI) for organising this event. The theme of the event – Creating a sustainable financial world - is very relevant in current times. 2. In recent years, India has witnessed rapid progress in the financial service
Shri Shaktikanta Das, Governor, Reserve Bank of India
I am delighted to be here today in the third edition of the Global Fintech Festival (GFF). I would like to congratulate the organisers – the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI), the Fintech Convergence Council (FCC) and the Payment Council of India (PCI) for organising this event. The theme of the event – Creating a sustainable financial world - is very relevant in current times. 2. In recent years, India has witnessed rapid progress in the financial service
Mar 24, 2022
Inauguration of the Reserve Bank Innovation Hub (RBIH)
Central Banks are often viewed as traditional institutions that set monetary policies, issue currencies and regulate and supervise the financial sector segments and entities. For every economy to grow steadily and efficiently, this characteristic of a central bank is very important. Being a full service central bank, the RBI also plays a developmental role and is looked upon as a residual regulator as well. 2. RBI has been able to perform its varied roles with require
Shri Shaktikanta Das, Governor, Reserve Bank of India
Central Banks are often viewed as traditional institutions that set monetary policies, issue currencies and regulate and supervise the financial sector segments and entities. For every economy to grow steadily and efficiently, this characteristic of a central bank is very important. Being a full service central bank, the RBI also plays a developmental role and is looked upon as a residual regulator as well. 2. RBI has been able to perform its varied roles with require
Sep 28, 2021
Responsible Digital Innovation
Good morning. 1. Fintech, or technology that provides digital financial services is transforming the provision and delivery of financial services. At its most basic level digital technology enables speed – speed in processing information and speed in communication. Processing speed has reduced cost and time for transactions while communication speed has enhanced connectivity of systems expanding the reach of transactions. Taken together, digital technology is changing
Shri T. Rabi Sankar, Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India
Good morning. 1. Fintech, or technology that provides digital financial services is transforming the provision and delivery of financial services. At its most basic level digital technology enables speed – speed in processing information and speed in communication. Processing speed has reduced cost and time for transactions while communication speed has enhanced connectivity of systems expanding the reach of transactions. Taken together, digital technology is changing

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