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Nov 22, 2023
Winning in Uncertain Times: The Indian Experience (Inaugural Speech by Shri Shaktikanta Das, Governor, Reserve Bank of India - November 22, 2023 - Delivered at the FIBAC 2023 Conference Organised Jointly by FICCI and IBA at Mumbai)

I am delighted to participate in this symposium on Indian Economy organised by the Institute of Indian Economic Studies (IIES), Tokyo. I understand this event is being organised by the IIES after a gap of 3 years due to the intervening period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Earlier this year in March 2023, Prof. Sakakibara and Mr. Sugaya had visited the Reserve Bank of India in Mumbai when we discussed about my participation in this symposium.  I would like to convey my sincere thanks and gratitude to Prof. Sakakibara and the IIES for inviting me to participate in this event today.

Shri Shaktikanta Das, Governor, Reserve Bank of India

I am delighted to participate in this symposium on Indian Economy organised by the Institute of Indian Economic Studies (IIES), Tokyo. I understand this event is being organised by the IIES after a gap of 3 years due to the intervening period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Earlier this year in March 2023, Prof. Sakakibara and Mr. Sugaya had visited the Reserve Bank of India in Mumbai when we discussed about my participation in this symposium.  I would like to convey my sincere thanks and gratitude to Prof. Sakakibara and the IIES for inviting me to participate in this event today.

Sep 05, 2023
Art of Monetary Policy Making: The Indian Context (Speech by Shri Shaktikanta Das, Governor, Reserve Bank of India - September 5, 2023 - Delhi School of Economics (DSE) Diamond Jubilee Distinguished Lecture)

I am delighted to be here with all of you to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee Year of the Delhi School of Economics (DSE). The Delhi School has made a distinct mark as an institution of excellence and very high reputation, both in India and abroad. The list of eminent economists and distinguished alumni associated with the DSE is long and impressive. The School has inspired generations of students to excel in diverse streams such as academia, research, government and corporate sectors. In the Reserve Bank of India, we have also benefitted immensely from the DSE, with a continuous stream of students joining the RBI. It is a matter of pride for me to be part of this momentous year in the history of the institute which has contributed immensely to the policy discourse in India.

2. Today, I have chosen to speak on “Art of Monetary Policy Making: The Indian Context”. As you would be aware, India formally adopted the flexible inflation targeting (FIT) framework in 2016, in broad alignment with global trends. The underlying principle of this framework is that a clearly articulated, legislatively mandated numerical inflation target is the best foundation for overall macroeconomic stability. Low and stable inflation helps households and businesses in planning for long-term savings and investments which ultimately drive innovation, productivity and sustainable growth. On the contrary, high and volatile inflation corrodes the economy by denting productivity and the long-term growth potential. Inflation also imposes disproportionate burden on the poor.

3. I have structured my talk in the following sequence: (i) evolution of monetary policy in India, culminating in the adoption of flexible inflation targeting (FIT) framework; (ii) key elements of this framework, including the forecasting process; (iii) conduct of monetary policy under the FIT regime; and (iv) monetary policy challenges at the current juncture.

Evolution of Monetary Policy Since Independence

4. During the 1950s and 1960s, as the country embarked upon planned economic development, monetary policy assumed a developmental role of meeting the credit needs of the economy as identified under the five-year plans. Bank nationalisation in 1969 ushered in the era of social banking and led to the credit planning phase (1969-85). This period witnessed widespread use of non-market instruments such as directed credit, administered interest rates and moral suasion.

5. Monetary policy during the 1970s and 1980s was constrained by fiscal dominance, automatic monetisation of budget deficits and excessive growth of monetary aggregates. The large scale deficit financing and the resultant high monetary and credit expansion led to inflationary pressures which were further exacerbated by a series of shocks, namely, the Indo-Pak war of 1971, the drought of 1973, the collapse of the Bretton Woods system in 1973, and global oil price shocks of 1973 and 1979. These events precipitated the adoption of “monetary targeting with feedback” as a formal monetary policy framework in 1985.

Shri Shaktikanta Das, Governor, Reserve Bank of India

I am delighted to be here with all of you to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee Year of the Delhi School of Economics (DSE). The Delhi School has made a distinct mark as an institution of excellence and very high reputation, both in India and abroad. The list of eminent economists and distinguished alumni associated with the DSE is long and impressive. The School has inspired generations of students to excel in diverse streams such as academia, research, government and corporate sectors. In the Reserve Bank of India, we have also benefitted immensely from the DSE, with a continuous stream of students joining the RBI. It is a matter of pride for me to be part of this momentous year in the history of the institute which has contributed immensely to the policy discourse in India.

2. Today, I have chosen to speak on “Art of Monetary Policy Making: The Indian Context”. As you would be aware, India formally adopted the flexible inflation targeting (FIT) framework in 2016, in broad alignment with global trends. The underlying principle of this framework is that a clearly articulated, legislatively mandated numerical inflation target is the best foundation for overall macroeconomic stability. Low and stable inflation helps households and businesses in planning for long-term savings and investments which ultimately drive innovation, productivity and sustainable growth. On the contrary, high and volatile inflation corrodes the economy by denting productivity and the long-term growth potential. Inflation also imposes disproportionate burden on the poor.

3. I have structured my talk in the following sequence: (i) evolution of monetary policy in India, culminating in the adoption of flexible inflation targeting (FIT) framework; (ii) key elements of this framework, including the forecasting process; (iii) conduct of monetary policy under the FIT regime; and (iv) monetary policy challenges at the current juncture.

Evolution of Monetary Policy Since Independence

4. During the 1950s and 1960s, as the country embarked upon planned economic development, monetary policy assumed a developmental role of meeting the credit needs of the economy as identified under the five-year plans. Bank nationalisation in 1969 ushered in the era of social banking and led to the credit planning phase (1969-85). This period witnessed widespread use of non-market instruments such as directed credit, administered interest rates and moral suasion.

5. Monetary policy during the 1970s and 1980s was constrained by fiscal dominance, automatic monetisation of budget deficits and excessive growth of monetary aggregates. The large scale deficit financing and the resultant high monetary and credit expansion led to inflationary pressures which were further exacerbated by a series of shocks, namely, the Indo-Pak war of 1971, the drought of 1973, the collapse of the Bretton Woods system in 1973, and global oil price shocks of 1973 and 1979. These events precipitated the adoption of “monetary targeting with feedback” as a formal monetary policy framework in 1985.

May 10, 2023
The Dawn of India’s Age
Dr. Basanta Kumar Pradhan, Director, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research or IGIDR, Prof Subrata Sarkar, Convenor of the Conference Committee, Faculty Members of IGIDR, Distinguished Alumni of the Institute, Ladies and Gentlemen, Namaskar and Good Afternoon! I am deeply honoured to be invited to inaugurate the IGIDR Alumni Conference which, perhaps for the first time, brings together former students, current students and faculty under the mantle of the alma
Dr. Michael Debabrata Patra, Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India
Dr. Basanta Kumar Pradhan, Director, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research or IGIDR, Prof Subrata Sarkar, Convenor of the Conference Committee, Faculty Members of IGIDR, Distinguished Alumni of the Institute, Ladies and Gentlemen, Namaskar and Good Afternoon! I am deeply honoured to be invited to inaugurate the IGIDR Alumni Conference which, perhaps for the first time, brings together former students, current students and faculty under the mantle of the alma
Nov 24, 2022
The Lighter Side of Making Monetary Policy
I am honoured to be invited to this year’s Conclave. In a short span of eight years, the SBI Banking and Economics Conclave has emerged as an important platform of eminence and relevance for deliberating on issues shaping the banking system and more broadly, India’s financial sector. This year, the backdrop is a daunting one. Across the world, monetary policy authorities are engaged in the most aggressive and synchronized tightening in decades. They are resolute in th
Dr. Michael Debabrata Patra, Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India
I am honoured to be invited to this year’s Conclave. In a short span of eight years, the SBI Banking and Economics Conclave has emerged as an important platform of eminence and relevance for deliberating on issues shaping the banking system and more broadly, India’s financial sector. This year, the backdrop is a daunting one. Across the world, monetary policy authorities are engaged in the most aggressive and synchronized tightening in decades. They are resolute in th
Nov 15, 2022
Lost in Transmission? Financial Markets and Monetary Policy
I thank you all for your very valuable participation in this seminar, the third in the series that we began in May 2016. In this context, I want to thank our team in the Financial Markets Regulation Department for making this Seminar happen with physical interactions after a long gap. Given my abiding interest in financial markets, I am particularly grateful to our team for ensuring that I don’t miss this opportunity to be with treasury heads and financial market expe
Dr. Michael Debabrata Patra, Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India
I thank you all for your very valuable participation in this seminar, the third in the series that we began in May 2016. In this context, I want to thank our team in the Financial Markets Regulation Department for making this Seminar happen with physical interactions after a long gap. Given my abiding interest in financial markets, I am particularly grateful to our team for ensuring that I don’t miss this opportunity to be with treasury heads and financial market expe
Aug 13, 2022
INDIA@75
Dr. Hrudananda Panda, Regional Director, Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Bhubaneswar, distinguished guests of the RBI from the Government of Odisha, academia, banks, financial institutions, industry associations, the media, scholars and students, my colleagues from the RBI, Ladies and Gentlemen, I am deeply honoured to be invited to deliver this address as part of the celebration of the 75th year of our Independence. I thank Dr. Panda for inviting me and more than that,
Dr. Michael Debabrata Patra, Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India
Dr. Hrudananda Panda, Regional Director, Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Bhubaneswar, distinguished guests of the RBI from the Government of Odisha, academia, banks, financial institutions, industry associations, the media, scholars and students, my colleagues from the RBI, Ladies and Gentlemen, I am deeply honoured to be invited to deliver this address as part of the celebration of the 75th year of our Independence. I thank Dr. Panda for inviting me and more than that,
Jul 09, 2022
Globalisation of Inflation and Conduct of Monetary Policy
I am delighted to participate in the inaugural Kautilya Economic Conclave. I look forward to this forum emerging as a leading platform for thoughtful discussions on contemporary economic and policy issues. The conference is being attended by a host of dignitaries from India and abroad, and I am sure their insights on a vast canvas of topics will enhance our understanding of current and future issues. In my address today, I propose to focus on a matter that is now in e
Shri Shaktikanta Das, Governor, Reserve Bank of India
I am delighted to participate in the inaugural Kautilya Economic Conclave. I look forward to this forum emerging as a leading platform for thoughtful discussions on contemporary economic and policy issues. The conference is being attended by a host of dignitaries from India and abroad, and I am sure their insights on a vast canvas of topics will enhance our understanding of current and future issues. In my address today, I propose to focus on a matter that is now in e
Jun 24, 2022
Geopolitical Spillovers and the Indian Economy
Shri Pradeep Multani, President, Shri Saket Dalmia, Senior Vice-President, Shri Sanjeev Agarwal, Vice President, Shri Saurabh Sanyal, Secretary General, Dr. S P Sharma, Chief Economist, esteemed members of the PhD Chamber of Commerce and Industry, eminent dignitaries and friends. I am honoured to be invited to address and interact with you today. I am inspired by the Chamber’s glorious history of 117 years as an apex chamber of national eminence catalysing Indian busi
Dr. Michael Debabrata Patra, Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India
Shri Pradeep Multani, President, Shri Saket Dalmia, Senior Vice-President, Shri Sanjeev Agarwal, Vice President, Shri Saurabh Sanyal, Secretary General, Dr. S P Sharma, Chief Economist, esteemed members of the PhD Chamber of Commerce and Industry, eminent dignitaries and friends. I am honoured to be invited to address and interact with you today. I am inspired by the Chamber’s glorious history of 117 years as an apex chamber of national eminence catalysing Indian busi
Mar 04, 2022
Monetary Policy and Central Bank Communication
I am happy to have been invited by the National Defence College (NDC) to share some of my thoughts with the participants of the 62nd NDC course on National Security and Strategic Studies. The NDC has earned a reputation for being a centre of excellence in the study and practice of National Security and Strategy. It is good to see a mix of officers of Armed Forces and Civil Services from India as well as from other countries who are participating in this course. In my
Shri Shaktikanta Das, Governor, Reserve Bank of India
I am happy to have been invited by the National Defence College (NDC) to share some of my thoughts with the participants of the 62nd NDC course on National Security and Strategic Studies. The NDC has earned a reputation for being a centre of excellence in the study and practice of National Security and Strategy. It is good to see a mix of officers of Armed Forces and Civil Services from India as well as from other countries who are participating in this course. In my
Sep 16, 2021
Monetary Policy: Trial by Pandemic

Shri Nilesh Shah, Chairman, CII National Committee on Financial Markets, Shri Vishal Kampani, Co-Chair, Ms. Anuradha Salwan, Head, Financial Sector, CII, Ms. Amita Sarkar, Deputy Director General, CII and friends, I am honoured to be invited to deliver the keynote address in this plenary session of the 12th edition of the Financial Markets Summit organized by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). Over the years, the Summit has emerged as a flagship event for tak

Dr. Michael Debabrata Patra, Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India

Shri Nilesh Shah, Chairman, CII National Committee on Financial Markets, Shri Vishal Kampani, Co-Chair, Ms. Anuradha Salwan, Head, Financial Sector, CII, Ms. Amita Sarkar, Deputy Director General, CII and friends, I am honoured to be invited to deliver the keynote address in this plenary session of the 12th edition of the Financial Markets Summit organized by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). Over the years, the Summit has emerged as a flagship event for tak

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Page Last Updated on: May 22, 2024